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Ciena Corporation patents


Recent patent applications related to Ciena Corporation. Ciena Corporation is listed as an Agent/Assignee. Note: Ciena Corporation may have other listings under different names/spellings. We're not affiliated with Ciena Corporation, we're just tracking patents.

ARCHIVE: New 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 | Company Directory "C" | Ciena Corporation-related inventors


Optical network visualization and planning

Computer-implemented systems and methods for visually presenting spectrum usage of optical spectrum in an optical network include obtaining spectrum data which defines spectrum usage of optical spectrum associated with the optical network including a plurality of nodes interconnected by a plurality of links; and displaying a circular histogram to visually illustrate the spectrum usage based on the spectrum data, wherein each segment of the circular histogram represents an associated portion of the optical spectrum and a visual indicator in each segment represents usage of the associated portion.. . ... Ciena Corporation

Fiber kerr nonlinear noise estimation

A method of fiber kerr nonlinear noise estimation in an optical transmission system comprises recovering received symbols from a received signal, isolating a noise component of the received signal, estimating coefficients of a matrix based on cross-correlations between the isolated noise component and the fields of a triplet of received symbols or training symbols or estimated transmitted symbols, estimating doublet correlations of the product or the quotient of the isolated noise component and the field of a received symbol or of a training symbol or of an estimated transmitted symbol, and estimating one or more parameters related to nonlinear noise based on the estimated coefficients of the matrix and based on the estimated doublet correlations.. . ... Ciena Corporation

Nonlinear spatially resolved interferometer for characterizing optical properties of deployed telecommunication cables

Using pump-probe measurements on multi-span optical links may result in the determination of one or more of the following: 1) wavelength-dependent power profile and gain evolution along the optical link; 2) wavelength-dependent dispersion map; and 3) location of regions of high polarization-dependent loss (pdl) and polarization-mode dispersion (pmd). Such measurements may be a useful diagnostic for maintenance and upgrade activities on deployed cables as well as for commissioning new cables.. ... Ciena Corporation

Methods and systems for managing optical network services including capacity mining and scheduling

Systems and methods for managing optical network services in an optical network include providing a user interface illustrating a current state of the optical network; performing analysis based on user input related to an event affecting the current state of the optical network to determine a first future state of the optical network; providing an updated user interface illustrating the first future state based on the analysis; performing an updated analysis based on updated user input received in response to the first future to determine a second future state of the optical network; and providing a further updated user interface illustrating the second future state.. . ... Ciena Corporation

Systems and methods for modular deployment and upgrade of multiple optical spectrum bands in optical transmission systems

An optical node supporting a modular deployment and upgrade of optical spectrum includes one or more c+l-band amplifier modules; and a modular base module configured to interface one or more c-band optical modems; wherein, in an initial deployment configuration, the modular base module provides channelized amplified spontaneous emission (ase) loading for select channels in the c-band via a first ase noise source coupled to a multiplexer for the c-band, bulk ase loading over the l-band via a second ase noise source coupled to an l-band output, and an upgrade port for connection to an l-band upgrade module. The l-band upgrade module can selectively connect to the upgrade port to provide an l-band upgrade configuration where the l-band upgrade module and the modular base module coordinate transition of the bulk ase loading to l-band channelized ase loading via a third ase noise source.. ... Ciena Corporation

Optically isolated photodiode for high sensitivity application

An integrated silicon-based photo-detection system, fabricated in an integrated silicon based structure on a silicon-on-insulator (soi) wafer, includes a photodiode fabricated on an isolated area surrounded by a light barrier, where the light barrier is an area where the soi wafer is removed, an optical waveguide that guides an input signal light into the photodiode, and external electrical traces that the free electron carriers flow into as photocurrent. A method of fabricating an integrated silicon-based photo-detection system in an integrated silicon based structure on a silicon-on-insulator (soi) wafer, includes performing deep etching to create a light barrier surrounding an isolated area on the soi wafer, fabricating a photodiode in the isolated area surrounded by the light barrier, fabricating an optical waveguide that guides an input signal light into the photodiode, and wirebonding external electrical traces to connect to the remainder of the integrated silicon based structure.. ... Ciena Corporation

Polarization rotator-splitter using mode conversion

A mode coupler for modal conversion. The mode coupler includes a first rib waveguide configured to propagate, through a coupling region, a first optical signal comprising a second te mode portion, wherein the second te mode is associated with a second te mode refractive index in the first rib waveguide, a second rib waveguide disposed in proximity to the first rib waveguide across the coupling region, where the first te mode is associated with a first te mode refractive index in the second rib waveguide that substantially matches the second te mode refractive index in the first rib waveguide, and the coupling region configured to convert the second te mode portion of the first optical signal into a second optical signal in the second rib waveguide, where the second optical signal is in the first te mode of the second rib waveguide.. ... Ciena Corporation

Spot-size converter for optical mode conversion and coupling between two waveguides

A spot-size converter having a waveguiding structure. The first part of the waveguiding structure receives light from or transmits light to a first waveguide in a first propagation mode. ... Ciena Corporation

Network level protection route evaluation systems and methods

A method of network level protection route evaluation and remediation in a network includes defining thresholds for one or more services, wherein the thresholds define how many expected alternate protection routes are available for the one or more services for network level restoration; periodically evaluating a number of available alternate protection routes for the one or more services; notifying a network operator responsive to the number of available alternate protection routes being below the thresholds; and performing one or more remedial actions in the network based on the notifying.. . ... Ciena Corporation

G.8032 misconfiguration detection systems and methods

A g.8032 misconfiguration detection method in a node includes receiving a mapped configuration from another node on a ring, wherein the mapped configuration includes a mapping of g.8032 instances to virtual local area network (vlan) identifiers configured at the another node; comparing the mapped configuration with a local configuration on the node; and, responsive to a mismatch in the comparing, providing one of a trap and a notification based on the mismatch. The g.8032 misconfiguration can include one of a vlan not mapped as protected to a node and a vlan removed from a protected list at the node.. ... Ciena Corporation

User defined applications executed on optical modules for performance monitoring in optical networks

An optical module adapted to operate in an optical network to perform an optical function therein includes optical components adapted to perform one or more functions associated with the optical module; processing circuitry communicatively coupled to the optical components and adapted to obtain data generated during operation of the one or more functions; and compute resources communicatively coupled to the processing circuitry and adapted to receive an application for local execution on the compute resources in a sandboxed manner, and analyze, by the application, the data to perform one or more functions.. . ... Ciena Corporation

Path computation based on dynamic performance monitoring systems and methods in optical networks

Systems and methods for path computation in an optical network include obtaining optical layer characteristics related to one or more optical paths in the optical network based in part on performance measurements in the optical network; responsive to service establishment or service restoration, determining a path from source to destination based on utilizing the optical layer characteristics to confirm physical validity of the path; and provisioning a service on the determined path from the source to the destination in the optical network.. . ... Ciena Corporation

Metered interface

A method for executing a network command using synchronized timers. The method includes obtaining, by a first device, a first current time value from a first timer of the first device, determining, by the first device, a time-to-execute value based on the first current time value, sending, from the first device to a second device, a first network command message including the network command and the time-to-execute value, repetitively obtaining, by the second device, a second current time value from a second timer of the second device, comparing, by the second device and in response to receiving the first network command message, the second current time value to the time-to-execute value extracted from the first network command message, and executing, by the second device and in response to the second current time value matching the time-to-execute value, the network command, wherein the first timer and the second timer are synchronized.. ... Ciena Corporation

Hierarchical statistics acceleration

A method for operating a network includes receiving, by a statistics engine of a network device, a channel identifier in connection with a statistic of an input frame. The channel identifier identifies a channel of a virtual network structure, and the input frame is received by the network device via the channel of the virtual network structure. ... Ciena Corporation

06/21/18 / #20180176037

Hierarchical encapsulation acceleration

A method for a network device. The method includes receiving, by an encapsulation engine from a data path processor, a channel identifier in connection with a data frame, where the channel identifier identifies a channel of the network, traversing, by the encapsulation engine based on the channel identifier in connection with the data frame, a hierarchical data structure, where the hierarchical data structure includes a number of hierarchical encapsulation data items corresponding to a number of channels, selecting, from the number of hierarchical encapsulation data items by the encapsulation engine based on the traversing the hierarchical data structure, a number of linked encapsulation data items that are linked to the channel identifier, generating, by the encapsulation engine based on the number of linked encapsulation data items, an encapsulation result, and sending, to the data path processor, the encapsulation result for transmitting the data frame via at least the channel.. ... Ciena Corporation

06/14/18 / #20180167160

Flexible ethernet enhanced forward error correction

Flexible ethernet (flexe) forward error correction (fec) systems and methods include mapping a first set of calendar slots including ethernet payload clients to a flexe time division multiplexing (tdm) structure including a plurality of calendar slots; and mapping a second set of calendar slots including fec data to the flexe tdm structure, wherein the first set of calendar slots and the second set of calendar slots fill the flexe tdm structure. In an exemplary embodiment, an overall physical (phy) rate of the flexe tdm structure is kept constant with a reduction in bandwidth for the ethernet payload clients based on the second set. ... Ciena Corporation

06/14/18 / #20180165110

Systems and methods for on demand applications and workflow management in distributed network functions virtualization

A workloads management method for on-demand applications in distributed network functions virtualization infrastructure (dnfvi) includes receiving usage data from a unikernel implementing one or more functions of a plurality of functions related to a virtual network function (vnf); determining an update to the one or more functions in the unikernel based on the usage data; updating the unikernel by requesting generation of application code for the unikernel based on the update; and starting the updated unikernel and redirecting service requests thereto. The unikernel and the updated unikernel are executed directly on a hypervisor. ... Ciena Corporation

06/14/18 / #20180164506

Interferometer based on a tilted mmi

An optical interferometer based on multi-mode interference (mmi) devices includes an input port, an output port, a first mmi device connected to the input port at an input face of the first mmi device, a second mmi device connected to the first output port at an output face of the second mmi device. In the optical interferometer, an output face of the first mmi device and an input face of the second mmi device are directly connected, the first mmi device includes a first and a second self-imaging points at an interface between the first mmi device and the second mmi device, and a propagation axis of the second mmi device is tilted with respect to a propagation axis of the first mmi device, causing a path length difference between an upper optical path via the first self-imaging point and a lower optical path via the second self-imaging point.. ... Ciena Corporation

05/31/18 / #20180152772

Systems and methods modeling optical sources in optical spectrum controllers for control thereof

Systems and methods for modeling non-visible optical sources in a spectrum controller for control thereof include receiving channel routing information and signal characteristics for the non-visible channels separately from visible channels, wherein the visible channels are formed by optical transceivers communicatively coupled to the spectrum controller and the non-visible channels are formed by optical transceivers without communication to the spectrum controller; utilizing a combination of the channel routing information and signal characteristics for both the visible channels and the non-visible channels as input to the spectrum controller; performing control of optical spectrum based on the input; and providing output adjustments based on the control.. . ... Ciena Corporation

05/31/18 / #20180152367

Flexible ethernet operations, administration, and maintenance systems and methods

A node configured to support a flexible ethernet (flexe) client service in a network includes circuitry configured to interface a flexe client; and circuitry configured to monitor and update one or more operations, administration, and maintenance (oam) fields associated with the flexe client, wherein the one or more oam fields include a monitoring field that covers 64b/66b codes for a path of the flexe client. A method, implemented in a node, for supporting a flexible ethernet (flexe) client service in a network includes interfacing a flexe client; and updating and monitoring one or more operations, administration, and maintenance (oam) fields associated with the flexe client, wherein the one or more oam fields include a monitoring field that covers 64b/66b codes for a path of the flexe client.. ... Ciena Corporation

05/31/18 / #20180152241

Systems and methods for a preemptive controller for photonic line systems

Systems and methods for an optical controller in an optical network for photonic control include monitoring signal output of the optical controller for fluctuations on a signal, wherein the optical controller may operate with one or more upstream optical controllers in the optical network which may cause the fluctuations; and initiating a control loop by the optical controller on the signal based on the monitored fluctuations. The initiating is based on one or more thresholds used to differentiate actions of the one or more upstream optical controllers of the plurality of optical controllers from one or more of fiber faults, natural fluctuations in fiber plant, and natural fluctuations in hardware.. ... Ciena Corporation

05/31/18 / #20180152236

Client protection switch in optical pluggable transceivers activated through fast electrical data squelch

Client-side protection systems and methods are implemented by a network element using a fast electrical squelch with a first optical transceiver and a second optical transceiver. A client-side protection method includes detecting a protection switching event affecting one or more lanes associated with the first optical transceiver; causing a fast electrical squelch to the affected one or more lanes of the first optical transceiver to provide a loss of signal (los) thereto; and subsequent to the los to the first electrical transceiver, causing a fast electrical squelch to corresponding one or more lanes of the second optical transceiver to enable the corresponding one or more lanes thereon.. ... Ciena Corporation

05/31/18 / #20180149819

Mid-board pluggable optical devices, assemblies, and methods

A pluggable optical module, including: a pluggable module unit including an optical connector disposed at a front end portion thereof and an electrical connector disposed at a rear bottom portion thereof, wherein the optical connector is configured to be optically coupled to an optical fiber, and wherein the electrical connector is configured to be electrically coupled to an electrical connector disposed on an electrical board. Optionally, the pluggable module unit includes a pluggable module adapter secured to a pluggable module body. ... Ciena Corporation

05/24/18 / #20180145761

Low-latency adjustment of flexible transceivers using pilot signal

In an optical communication system having flexible transceivers, a transmitter section of one of the flexible transceivers generates a modulated pilot signal whose amplitude or phase or both have been modulated according to a digital code. An optical signal is transmitted from the transmitter section to a receiver section of another of the flexible transceivers. ... Ciena Corporation

05/10/18 / #20180131776

Efficient prioritized restoration of services in a control plane-based optical network

Systems and methods for efficient prioritized restoration of services implemented in a node in a network utilizing a control plane include releasing higher priority services affected by a fault on a link adjacent to the node immediately via control plane signaling such that the higher priority services mesh restore; tracking mesh restoration of the released higher priority services; and releasing lower priority services based on the tracking, subsequent to the mesh restoration of the higher priority services, wherein the higher priority services and the lower priority services comprise one or more of optical transport network (otn) connections, dense wavelength division multiplexing (dwdm) connections, and multiprotocol label switching (mpls) connections.. . ... Ciena Corporation

05/10/18 / #20180131580

Systems and methods for adaptive over-the-top content quality of experience optimization

Systems and methods for adaptive over-the-top (ott) content optimization based on quality of experience (qoe) are implemented in an ott optimization platform communicatively coupled to a plurality of devices in a network. The system and methods include receiving a plurality of inputs comprising network inputs, service and software inputs, and qoe inputs; analyzing the plurality of inputs with respect to one or more ott content streams to perform an optimization thereof; determining adjustments in the network based on the optimization; and one of notifying a network operator of the adjustments and automatically causing the adjustments in the network.. ... Ciena Corporation

05/10/18 / #20180131514

Dynamic licensing for applications and plugin framework for virtual network systems

A network functions virtualization (nfv) method integrating third-party virtual network functions (vnf) through a plugin framework includes operating, via one or more servers in an nfv cloud, the plugin framework with application programming interfaces (api) to one or more third-party vnfs; providing a catalog of vnf services comprising the one or more third-party vnfs to an end user; and operating the one or more third-party vnfs with the end user via the nfv cloud, wherein the one or more third-party vnfs are from a different vendor than an operator of the nfv cloud.. . ... Ciena Corporation

05/10/18 / #20180129001

Optic module cage assembly utilizing a stationary heatsink

An optic module cage assembly includes an optic module cage body configured to receive and retain one or more optic modules; a stationary heatsink fixedly attached to the optic module cage body; one or more spring members configured to bias the one or more optic modules towards the stationary heatsink when the one or more optic modules are retained in the optic module cage assembly; and one or more floating connectors configured to make electrical connections with the one or more optic modules when the optic modules are retained in the optic module cage assembly.. . ... Ciena Corporation

05/03/18 / #20180123980

Structured rearranged network for data center and high-performance computing applications

A data center network utilizing a single layer architecture includes a plurality of switches each with a plurality of ports including a first set of ports of the plurality of ports including network facing ports and a second set of ports of the plurality of ports including server facing ports; and a plurality of optical reshufflers configured to randomly interconnect the plurality of switches via the network facing ports of each in a single layer, unstructured network based on a plurality of structural constraints. The value of a number of the network facing ports is equal or greater than a number of the server facing ports and wherein each of the plurality of switches is a switch with attached servers. ... Ciena Corporation

05/03/18 / #20180123964

Systems and methods for management of cloud exchanges

A method involving receiving application monitoring data for a first application executing in a first cloud provider and a second application executing in a second cloud provider, wherein both the first and second cloud providers communication via a cloud exchange, performing traffic latency analytics using the received application monitoring data, determining, based on the traffic latency analytics, that a peering agreement between the first cloud provider and the cloud exchange should be moved to a central office re-architected as a data center (cord), requesting a path computation engine to find the cord that meets a required set of criteria, establishing a private link between the cord and the cloud exchange, moving the at least one peering agreement to be between the first cloud provider and the cord, and forwarding at least a portion of the traffic originating from the first application in the first cloud provider directly via the cord.. . ... Ciena Corporation

04/19/18 / #20180110130

Multi-width waveguides

A waveguide. The waveguide may include a first waveguide region that includes a signal trace with a first width. ... Ciena Corporation

04/12/18 / #20180102948

Network service pricing and resource management in a software defined networking environment

Systems and methods for instantiating a network service in a network include receiving a service request for a network service; determining network resources in the network to instantiate the network service; determining a price for the network resources utilizing forecasts with adjustments to the price based on a current network status; providing the price in response to the service request; and responsive to acceptance of the price, causing instantiation of the network service through the network resources in the network.. . ... Ciena Corporation

04/12/18 / #20180102944

Systems and methods for avoiding inadvertent loops in a layer 2 switched network

Loop prevention systems and methods implemented in a switch to prevent loops in a layer 2 packet switched network based on media access control (mac) movement in a forwarding database include enabling class based mac learning on one or more ports with all of the one or more ports initially in a higher priority learning class; disabling mac movements from the higher priority learning class to a lower priority learning class and disabling mac movements in the lower priority learning class such that the switch discards frames attempting to perform mac movement to ports which are in the lower priority learning class; and managing a priority for specific source mac addresses between a source port belonging to the higher priority learning class and the lower priority learning class based on detected loops for the specific source mac addresses.. . ... Ciena Corporation

04/12/18 / #20180102834

Partial survivability for multi-carrier and multi-module optical interfaces

Partial survivability systems and methods implemented in a node in an optical transport unit cn (otucn) network include, subsequent to an optical carrier (optical tributary signal (otsi)) failure of a plurality of optical carriers, determining which optical data unit k (oduk) services in an otucn associated with the otsi are affected; signaling a partial failure for the otucn and a failure only for the affected oduk services; adjusting overhead associated with the otucn based on the otsi failure; and applying actions to the affected oduk services subsequent to the otsi failure. The signaling of the partial failure can include signaling one or more of a partial alarm indication signal (p-ais), a partial backward defect indication (p-bdi), and a partial server signal fail (p-ssf) for the otucn, and the signaling the failure can include signaling one or more of ais, bdi, and ssf only for the affected oduk services.. ... Ciena Corporation

04/05/18 / #20180098138

High capacity fiber-optic integrated transmission systems

A high capacity node includes a plurality of receiver sections and a plurality of transmitter sections; and an electrical switching fabric between the plurality of receiver sections and the plurality of transmitter sections, wherein each of the plurality of receiver sections and the plurality of transmitter sections interface the electrical switching fabric at a full signal level and the electrical switching fabric is configured to perform flow switching on the full signal level between respective receiver sections and transmitter sections, and wherein the plurality of receiver sections, the plurality of transmitter sections, and one or more stages of the electrical switching fabric are implemented in one or more optoelectronic integrated circuits.. . ... Ciena Corporation

04/05/18 / #20180097890

Service preemption selection systems and methods in networks

Systems and methods for service preemption selection in a network include receiving, from an ingress link, a request to establish a service on a path in the network while preempting one or more existing services if required to establish the service, wherein the request comprises a list of any previously selected services for preemption and an indication of whether preemption is required on the ingress link, wherein the service and the one or more existing services comprise an end-to-end path in the network; selecting, if required based on the indication, one or more services for preemption on the ingress link based on service selection criteria; and forwarding the request on an egress link to an adjacent node with any updates based on the selecting.. . ... Ciena Corporation

03/22/18 / #20180084638

Pcb microstrip propagation delay matching through control of trace width

A differential pair propagation delay matched microstrip transmission line manufactured on a printed circuit board (pcb) includes a first trace including a strip of conductor in air, a second trace including a strip of conductor in the air positioned adjacent to and closely spaced apart from the first trace, a conductive reference plane disposed adjacent the first trace and the second trace, and a layer of dielectric material that separates the first trace and the second trace from the conductive reference plane, such that electric fields fringing out of the first trace and second trace pass through the air and the layer of dielectric material. A width of at least one of the first trace and the second trace is adjusted to match signal propagation times of the first and second traces.. ... Ciena Corporation

03/22/18 / #20180084063

Systems and methods for selecting efficient messaging between services

Systems and methods for selecting efficient messaging to a service include operating the service in a one of a microservices architecture (msa) and a service-oriented architecture (soa); providing messaging protocols and serialization formats supported by the service for a second service to determine the efficient messaging to the service; and communicating with the second service via a selected messaging protocol and a selected serialization format based on the providing. Each of the service and the second service is a self-contained unit of functionality that is combined with other services to provide functionality of a large software application.. ... Ciena Corporation

03/22/18 / #20180083712

Method and system for nonlinear interference mitigation

A method for preventing nonlinear interference in an optical communication system. The method may include selecting an optical signal of a first optical channel. ... Ciena Corporation

03/22/18 / #20180081137

Side plane

A system includes a first blade including a first side of the first blade, a second side of the first blade, a front of the first blade, and a back of the first blade. The system further includes a second blade including a first side of the second blade, a second side of the second blade, a front of the second blade, and a back of the second blade. ... Ciena Corporation

03/15/18 / #20180077080

Systems and methods for adaptive and intelligent network functions virtualization workload placement

A method for adaptive and intelligent network functions virtualization (nfv) workload placement includes monitoring operation of a network with resources including one or more virtual network functions (vnfs) and microservices; responsive to a request for a service in the network, decomposing the service into interconnected functional atoms, with the functional atoms located in one or more network domains including one or more of different data centers in the network and a user device associated with the service, wherein the functional atoms are decompositions of the vnfs and the microservices into a smaller level of functionality than the vnfs and microservices, wherein the functional atoms are based on isolability, observability, and measurability; and instantiating the service in the network based on the determined placement of the functional atoms.. . ... Ciena Corporation

03/15/18 / #20180076976

G.8032 prioritized ring switching systems and methods

A prioritized g.8032 ring switching systems and methods implemented in a node include receiving a defined priority level for each of a plurality of virtual rings at the node, wherein the priority level is one of n levels of priority, n being an integer; and, responsive to a link failure that affects the plurality of virtual rings, performing g.8032 traffic restoration in order based on each of the n levels of priority, wherein each set of the plurality of virtual rings at a same defined priority level are processed concurrently to minimize hardware access. The plurality of virtual rings can be processed concurrently through flushing their forwarding databases at a same time for each of the set on a per virtual ring basis. ... Ciena Corporation

03/15/18 / #20180076887

Optical dispersion compensation in the electrical domain in an optical communications system

A compensation function mitigates a substantial portion of the dispersion imparted to a communications signal by an optical communications system. A digital input signal is digitally processed using the compensation function to generate a predistorted signal. ... Ciena Corporation

03/15/18 / #20180076884

Dual wavelenth optical time domain reflectometer systems and methods embedded in a wdm system

Systems and methods using a bi-directional optical time domain reflectometer (otdr) to monitor a fiber optic communication system including a first node and a second node. The systems and methods include performing a first otdr measurement at a first otdr wavelength at the first node on a first fiber; performing a second otdr measurement at a second otdr wavelength at the second node on the first fiber; and utilizing the first otdr measurement and the second otdr measurement for event detection on the first fiber.. ... Ciena Corporation

03/15/18 / #20180076882

Horizontal synchronization extensions for service resizing in optical networks

Systems and methods for horizontal synchronization are implemented by a first node with a second node adjacent to the first node in a network with a control plane. The horizontal synchronization manages and corrects for a state of a service which is resizable. ... Ciena Corporation

03/08/18 / #20180067274

Method of cooling stacked, pluggable optical transceivers

An optical transceiver cooling assembly includes stacked cages mounted to a pcb. A heat radiator also is mounted on the pcb. ... Ciena Corporation

03/01/18 / #20180063608

Disjoint path computation systems and methods in optical networks

Systems and methods for computing disjoint paths in a network considering continuity constraints include, responsive to a request for disjoint paths in the network which are subject to the continuity constraints, initializing a plurality of variables associated with a graph defining the network where edges constitute nodes and vertices constitute links; determining a first path through the graph; determining an auxiliary directed graph based on the first path; and determining a second path through the auxiliary directed graph, wherein the second path is determined by considering entry into cut edges, exit from cut edges, and a destination in the auxiliary directed graph and the plurality of variables are adjusted based on the entry, the exit, and the destination to address the continuity constraints. This approach concept applies to not just continuity constraints but to any constraints, which are non-additive in nature; the objective function is still additive for shortest path first (spf).. ... Ciena Corporation

03/01/18 / #20180062943

Service enhancement discovery for connectivity traits and virtual network functions in network services

Systems and methods of service enhancement in a software defined networking (sdn) network include performing an evaluation of one or more services in the sdn network for service enhancements; performing a scoring of the service enhancements of the one or more services; and causing implementation of at least one of the service enhancements in the sdn network. The evaluation can be based on temporarily implementing the service enhancements and measuring a benefit thereof. ... Ciena Corporation

03/01/18 / #20180062755

Phase modulator with reduced residual amplitude modulation

A phase modulator with reduced residual amplitude modulation includes a main path; a correction path; a first coupler configured to split, at a first ratio, an input to the main path and the correction path; and a second coupler configured to combine outputs from the main path and the correction path and to split the combined outputs, at a second ratio, with a first output comprising an output of the phase modulator with the reduced residual amplitude modulation. The correction path can include a correction signal with a proper amplitude and phase that, when combined with an output signal from the main path by the second coupler, cancels the residual amplitude modulation from the output signal.. ... Ciena Corporation

02/22/18 / #20180054360

Systems and methods for bandwidth management in software defined networking controlled multi-layer networks

Bandwidth management systems and methods for a software defined networking (sdn) network include obtaining network data related to downloads in a network and analyzing the network data to determine network services associated with the downloads; detecting congestion on one or more network services of the network services; and causing bandwidth orchestration for the one or more network services based on network resources available, policies associated with the one or more network services, and a state of associated downloads of the one or more network services.. . ... Ciena Corporation

02/08/18 / #20180041539

System and method for monitoring network vulnerabilities

A method for managing network vulnerabilities may include obtaining image data regarding a software container located on a network element. The image data may describe a software image used to generate the software container. ... Ciena Corporation

02/08/18 / #20180041392

Data center connectivity systems and methods through packet-optical switches

A data center network includes a plurality of packet-optical switches each at a location in the data center network and each including a switch fabric comprising both a layer 1 fabric and a packet fabric communicatively coupled to one or more line ports; wherein the plurality of packet-optical switches are communicatively coupled to one another in a topology to form data connectivity in the data center network, and wherein each of the plurality of packet-optical switches is configured to provide the data connectivity through the layer 1 switch bypassing the packet fabric when the location does not require layer 2 forwarding in the topology, and provide the data connectivity through the layer 1 switch and using the packet fabric to provide the data service with multi-point connectivity when the location requires layer 2 forwarding in the topology.. . ... Ciena Corporation

02/01/18 / #20180034573

Flexible ethernet switching systems and methods

A switch system configured to switch flexible ethernet (flexe) client services includes interface circuitry configured to ingress and egress flexe clients; and switch circuitry communicatively coupled to the interface circuitry and configured to switch portions of the flexe clients utilizing a cell switch and optical transport network (otn) over packet (opf) techniques. A method of switching flexible ethernet (flexe) client services includes ingressing and egressing flexe clients via interface circuitry; interfacing the flexe clients with switch circuitry communicatively coupled to the interface circuitry; and switching portions of the flexe clients with the switch circuitry utilizing a cell switch and optical transport network (otn) over packet (opf) techniques.. ... Ciena Corporation

01/25/18 / #20180026632

Ultra-low power cross-point electronic switch apparatus and method

An electrical switch circuit adapted to switch digital, high-speed signals with low power includes a plurality of input buffers each coupled to an input transmission line of a plurality of input transmission lines, wherein each input buffer utilizes a digital inverter; a plurality of output buffers each coupled to an output transmission line of a plurality of output transmission lines, wherein each output buffer utilizes a digital inverter; and a plurality of switches each coupled to an associated input transmission line and an associated output transmission line, wherein each of the input transmission line, the output transmission line, and the plurality of switches are in a single line configuration. For the low power, each of the input buffers, the output buffers, the input transmission lines, and the output transmission lines can be unterminated.. ... Ciena Corporation

01/18/18 / #20180019813

Raman amplifier system and method with integrated optical time domain reflectometer

An optical module includes an optical amplifier configured to amplify wavelength division multiplexing (wdm) channels transmitted on a fiber; and an optical time domain reflectometer (otdr) configured to transmit an otdr signal on the fiber and detect a back-scattered signal based thereon to test the fiber, wherein a wavelength of the otdr signal is one of i) between one or more wavelengths associated with the optical amplifier and one or more wavelengths associated with the wdm channels and ii) greater than the one or more wavelengths associated with the wdm channels, for in-service operation of the otdr.. . ... Ciena Corporation

01/11/18 / #20180013613

System and method for managing network connections

A method for managing network connections may include identifying a network failure within a network comprising various network elements. The method may include selecting, in response to identifying the network failure and for the network elements, a subset of nodal maps from various nodal maps. ... Ciena Corporation

01/04/18 / #20180007776

Active heatsink lid

An active device lid for a device base. The device lid includes a heatsink proximate to a circuit assembly and configured to remove heat generated by the device base, the circuit assembly configured to generate an operating signal voltage for the device base, and a connector configured to connect the circuit assembly to the device base, where the device base is configured to connect to a device mounting substrate on a substrate side of the device base, and where the circuit assembly is configured to be at least partially located on an opposing side of the device base, the opposing side opposing the substrate side.. ... Ciena Corporation

01/04/18 / #20180007147

Control plane routing systems and methods for pervasive maintenance

Systems and methods for automatically accommodating one or more connections associated with a network resource targeted for maintenance in a network include receiving a request identifying the network resource for the maintenance; responsive to the network resource carrying no traffic, blocking the network resource during the maintenance; and, responsive to the network resource carrying traffic, attempting local recovery on all connections of the traffic to move the connections off of the network resource based on action at the local node, and, for the connections unable to locally recover, performing a network action through a control plane in the network to move the connections unable to locally recover off of the network resource.. . ... Ciena Corporation

01/04/18 / #20180006757

Gridless optical routing and spectrum assignment

A method implemented by a processing device for gridless optical routing and spectrum assignment on links in an optical network includes, responsive to one or more new channel requests, performing a path computation utilizing frequency markers to determine feasibility of the one or more new channel requests, wherein the optical spectrum is represented as a real line with the frequency markers indicative of used optical spectrum; allocating the one or more new channel requests based on the path computation and allocation criteria; and responsive to allocating the one or more new channel requests, updating the associated frequency markers on the real line.. . ... Ciena Corporation

01/04/18 / #20180005979

Simultaneous double wire wedge bonding method, system, kit and tool

A wedge bonding method for simultaneously connecting two wires to a first component and then to a second component includes a) feeding the two wires side by side through a guide channel located at a lower end of a bonding wedge tool, b) positioning the bonding wedge tool over the first component and performing a first bond connection thereon, c) positioning the bonding wedge tool over the second component and performing a second bond connection thereon; and d) breaking tails of the two wires near the second bond connection.. . ... Ciena Corporation

12/28/17 / #20170373942

Systems and methods for combined software defined networking and distributed network control

A hybrid control method for a network includes operating edge switches under software defined networking control, wherein each of the edge switches is communicatively coupled to a controller for the software defined networking control; operating non-adjacent switches communicatively coupling the edge switches together under distributed control, wherein the non-adjacent switches are not coupled to the controller; and utilizing the controller to route traffic between the edge switches through the non-adjacent switches in a hybrid control scheme including both the software defined networking control and the distributed control.. . ... Ciena Corporation

12/28/17 / #20170371692

Optimized virtual network function service chaining with hardware acceleration

Systems and methods for virtual network function (vnf) service chain optimization include, responsive to a request, determining placement for one or more vnfs in a vnf service chain based on a lowest cost determination; configuring at least one programmable region of acceleration hardware for at least one vnf of the one or more vnfs; and activating the vnf service chain. The lowest cost determination can be based on a service chain cost model that assigns costs based on connectivity between switching elements and between hops between sites. ... Ciena Corporation

12/28/17 / #20170371102

Spot-size converter for optical mode conversion and coupling between two waveguides

A spot-size converter for coupling light between a first waveguide and a second waveguide extends along a longitudinal waveguiding axis and includes a transition region. The transition region includes a first part of waveguiding structure, which is coupled to the first waveguide, and a second part of waveguiding structure, which is coupled to the second waveguide. ... Ciena Corporation

12/21/17 / #20170366255

Systems and methods for path protection switching due to client protection switching

A method to avoid sympathetic switches in path switching protection due to client protection switching includes monitoring a drop side tandem connection monitoring (tcm) entity and a line side tcm entity for a connection, wherein the drop side tcm is provisioned between a drop port of the node and a second drop port of a corresponding node, and wherein the line side tcm entity is provisioned between a plurality of line ports of the node and a second plurality of line ports of the corresponding node; responsive to detecting defects in both the drop side tcm entity and the line side tcm entity on a working line, implementing path protection switching of the working line; and, responsive to detecting defects only in the drop side tcm entity, implementing path protection switching of the working line responsive to persistence of the defects.. . ... Ciena Corporation

12/14/17 / #20170359249

Resilient dual-homed data network hand-off

Systems and methods for l2 ethernet resilient hand-off include an access network configured between a first end point and a second end point, a first communication path and a second communication path for data flow between the first end point and the second end point, wherein the first communication path is active and the second communication path is inactive, and if a fault is detected in the first communication path, logic configured to activate the second communication path and perform a resilient hand-off of the data flow from the first communication path to the second communication path.. . ... Ciena Corporation

12/14/17 / #20170359141

Cross-polarized control channels for loading fiber optic transport systems

A method of loading a fiber optic transport system includes adding one or more control channels to an optical fiber having one or more channels, wherein each of the control channels comprises a pair of signals that are cross-polarized and each of the pair of signals is at a different frequency from one another; measuring optical power on the optical fiber; and adjusting optical power of the one or more control channels based on the measured optical power.. . ... Ciena Corporation

12/14/17 / #20170359118

Multi-layer network resiliency systems and methods

Systems and methods for path computation of a service in a multi-layer network including a client layer and a server layer include determining correlations between the client layer and the server layer; assigning data to one of client layer links and server layer links based on diversity between one another responsive to the determined correlations; and determining a resiliency path for a service from a current path using the data to determine diversity between the resiliency path and the current path in the client layer and the server layer.. . ... Ciena Corporation

12/14/17 / #20170356805

Integrated polarimeter in an optical line system

A polarimeter system integrated into an optical line system includes a transmitter coupled to a transmit filter communicatively coupled to an output port in an optical line device, wherein the transmitter is configured to generate a polarization probe signal, and wherein a wavelength of the polarization probe signal is configured to operate in-service with traffic-bearing channels on the output port; and a polarimeter receiver coupled to a receive filter communicatively coupled to an input port in the optical line device, wherein the polarimeter receiver is configured to vary arrangement of input light from the filter and to measure various outputs of the varied arrangement to derive measurement of state of polarization (sop) of the input light.. . ... Ciena Corporation

12/07/17 / #20170353490

Method and system of mitigating network attacks

A method for mitigating network attacks includes receiving traffic status information from sentries distributed in a network, and analyzing the traffic status information to detect an attack on the network. In response to the attack, an isolated network slice is created. ... Ciena Corporation

12/07/17 / #20170353246

Software programmable flexible and dynamic optical transceivers

A software programmable optical transceiver includes one or more field programmable gate arrays (fpgas); and an electro-optical front end communicatively coupled to the one or more fpgas, wherein the electro-optical front end comprises a transmitter and a receiver, wherein the transmitter is adapted to transmit a transmit signal from the one or more fpgas and the receiver is adapted to receive a receive signal and provide to the one or more fpgas, wherein one or more applications are utilized to dynamically configure the one or more fpgas for digital functionality to operate the software programmable optical transceiver in an associated mode. The one or more applications are loaded as needed to configure the software programmable optical transceiver in the associated mode, without requiring pre-programmed hardware in the software programmable optical transceiver for operation in a plurality of operating modes.. ... Ciena Corporation

12/07/17 / #20170353243

Optical network visualization and planning

Computer-implemented systems and methods for visually presenting spectrum usage of optical spectrum in an optical network include displaying a network map of the optical network comprising a plurality of nodes and a plurality of links connecting the plurality of nodes to one another; responsive to obtaining spectrum data comprising channel assignments on the plurality of links and nodes as endpoints of the associated channel assignments, displaying a plurality of circular histograms to visually illustrate spectrum usage in the optical network; and adjusting the plurality of circular histograms based on selections of a plurality of endpoints in the optical network. The plurality of circular histograms visually represent the spectrum usage by representing the optical spectrum in the optical network around the associated circular histogram, and wherein each portion or segment of the plurality of circular histograms represents one of a wavelength and a portion of spectrum.. ... Ciena Corporation

12/07/17 / #20170352233

Haptic strength responsive to motion detection

A method may include obtaining sensor data from sensors of a primary device, determining a sensor pattern based on the sensor data, generating a response based on the sensor pattern, and sending a signal over a network to a secondary device to trigger an action of the secondary device. The signal may be based on the sensor pattern.. ... Ciena Corporation

11/30/17 / #20170346591

Noise suppression and amplification systems and methods for colorless optical add/drop devices

A method for noise suppression in a colorless optical add/drop system implemented prior to a colorless optical add/drop device includes, subsequent to receiving an optical signal from an optical modem, filtering the optical signal with a wavelength blocking filter to suppress out of band amplified stimulated emission (ase) in order to prevent noise funneling in the colorless optical add/drop device; and providing the filtered optical signal with the out of band ase suppressed therein to a multiplexer port in the colorless optical add/drop device. The method can include, prior to the filtering, amplifying the optical signal with a single channel amplifier, wherein the single channel amplifier can include a pump laser shared with one or more additional single channel amplifiers.. ... Ciena Corporation

11/23/17 / #20170339780

Spread weave induced skew minimization

A method of manufacturing a printed circuit board (pcb) includes determining a weft direction of the pcb, and defining a routing design of differential pairs. The routing design is designed to have a fixed region in the weft direction. ... Ciena Corporation

11/23/17 / #20170339473

Control plane assisted optical switch

Systems and methods implemented by an all-optical switch configured to switch signals optically in an optical network include receiving and processing call information from a messaging/signaling session, wherein the call information relates to one or more calls on ports in the all-optical switch; and configuring the ports in the all-optical switch in the network based on the processed call information. The call information can include detection of one of a fault and a lockout on the one or more ports and an indication of faults in the optical network. ... Ciena Corporation

11/23/17 / #20170339028

Protection switching systems and methods in a packet network based on signal degrade

A method of protection switching in a packet network based on signal/service degrade includes monitoring a packet network connection; detecting the packet network connection has a signal/service degrade including a condition where the packet network connection is operational, but experiencing errors below a threshold; and responsive to detection of the signal/service degrade one or more of notifying nodes in the packet network and performing a protection switch based on the signal/service degrade. The signal/service degrade is detected through one or more of i) determining a frame error rate imputed from one or more of bit error rate, frame events, and frame losses; ii) frame delay measurements; and iii) a combination thereof.. ... Ciena Corporation

11/23/17 / #20170336903

Touch and pressure sensitive surface with haptic methods for blind probe alignment

A method may include detecting a position of a first probe based on a placement of the first probe relative to a first zone on a surface of a device, obtaining a first target position for the first probe in the first zone, comparing the position of the first probe to the first target position, and generating a first haptic response to guide the first probe toward the first target position when the position of the first probe is outside a first predetermined tolerance relative to the first target position. The first haptic response may vary with the position of the first probe.. ... Ciena Corporation

10/26/17 / #20170310392

Margin determination systems and methods in optical networks

Systems and methods for determining margin in an optical network include changing powers of signals from one or more transmitters; measuring noise at one or more receivers each communicatively coupled to the one or more transmitters; and determining margin between the one or more transmitters and the one or more receivers based on the associated measured noise. The changing, the measuring, and the determining are performed in-service while the one or more transmitters are each transmitting data-bearing signals.. ... Ciena Corporation

10/26/17 / #20170310390

Nonlinear spatially resolved interferometer (nl-sri) for characterizing optical properties of deployed telecommunication cables

Using pump-probe measurements on multi-span optical links may result in the determination of one or more of the following: 1) wavelength-dependent power profile and gain evolution along the optical link; 2) wavelength-dependent dispersion map; and 3) location of regions of high polarization-dependent loss (pdl) and polarization-mode dispersion (pmd). Such measurements may be a useful diagnostic for maintenance and upgrade activities on deployed cables as well as for commissioning new cables.. ... Ciena Corporation

10/12/17 / #20170294959

Dual wavelenth optical time domain reflectometer systems and methods embedded in a wdm system

A dual wavelength optical time domain reflectometer (otdr) system, embedded in a network element, includes a first otdr source for wavelength λ1; a second otdr source for wavelength λ2; an otdr measurement subsystem adapted to measure backscatter signals λ1_back, λ2_back associated with the wavelength λ1 and the wavelength λ2; and one or more ports connecting the first otdr source, the second otdr source, and the otdr measurement subsystem to one or more fiber pairs; wherein wavelength λ1 and wavelength λ2 are each outside of one or more signal bands with traffic-bearing channels, thereby enabling operation in-service with the traffic-bearing channels.. . ... Ciena Corporation

10/12/17 / #20170293098

Sliding assembly and method for fiber management

A hybrid chassis for fiber management includes a fixed tray adapted to mount to one of a rack and a frame; a sliding chassis assembly housed in the fixed tray; fiber connectors on a front faceplate of the sliding chassis assembly; internal cross connections in the sliding chassis assembly between the fiber connectors; and a sliding mechanism between the sliding chassis assembly and the fixed tray providing constrained sliding of the sliding chassis assembly between at least two positions including an operating, recessed position and a maintenance, fiber access position. In the operating, recessed position, the sliding chassis assembly can be recessed by about 3.3″ in the fixed tray, wherein, in the maintenance, fiber access position, the sliding chassis assembly can be recessed by about 1.3″ for fiber access, and wherein the constrained sliding can be about 2″.. ... Ciena Corporation

10/05/17 / #20170288678

Oven controlled crystal oscillator device cover

A device cover for temperature control of a component device includes at least one heating element enclosed using the device cover, and multiple sections. Each section is located at a distinct location on the device cover and includes a reflection angle for the distinct location. ... Ciena Corporation

09/28/17 / #20170279526

Frequency offset detection and correction in optical spectrum measurement systems

A frequency offset detection method in an optical spectrum measurement device, implemented by a controller, includes determining a reference optical spectrum based on expected channels and their associated spectral occupancy without extracting any information from actual received optical spectrum; obtaining a measured optical spectrum from the optical spectrum measurement device; and performing a frequency offset control loop using the reference optical spectrum and the measured optical spectrum to correct frequency offset in the optical spectrum measurement device. The optical spectrum measurement device can be an optical channel monitor and the measured optical spectrum can include optical channels partially overlapping one another in nyquist or in super-nyquist spacing.. ... Ciena Corporation

09/21/17 / #20170272207

Variable spectral efficiency optical modulation schemes

A received signal is received over a noise channel. A stream of received symbols is recovered from the received signal. ... Ciena Corporation

09/21/17 / #20170272033

Manufacturing automation of in-situ temperature compensation information

An in-situ temperature compensation method of an electronic device and an associated temperature sensor includes providing airflow from a vortex air gun to a board including the electronic device and the associated temperature sensor; determining an associated offset at various temperatures in an operating range; and creating and storing a calibration table in memory including the associated offsets at the various temperatures, the calibration table is used during operation of the electronic device for compensation due to temperature variation. A system includes a board, an electronic device disposed to the board; a temperature sensor disposed on the board; a processor disposed to the board and communicatively coupled to the electronic device and the temperature sensor; and instructions that cause the processor to determine an associated offset at various temperatures in an operating range, and create and store a calibration table in memory with the associated offsets at the various temperatures.. ... Ciena Corporation

09/21/17 / #20170269314

Optical module heatsink lifter and method

A module heatsink lifter for raising and lowering a heatsink enabling insertion and removal of a module includes a fixed base; a hinge connector of the fixed based coupled to the heatsink; and an actuator mechanism to raise and lower the heatsink through rotation about the hinge connector, wherein the actuator mechanism operates from a front faceplate based on push and pull movement to raise and lower the heatsink into a raised position and a lowered position. The heatsink includes a thermal interface material (tim) on a bottom portion which creates a thermal connection with the module when the heatsink is in the lowered position. ... Ciena Corporation

09/14/17 / #20170264565

Hierarchical resource tree allocation

A method for resource management includes receiving, from a client, an allocation request for a resource, and assigning, to the client, a partition of a hierarchical resource tree. The partition is in multiple partitions of the hierarchical resource tree. ... Ciena Corporation

09/14/17 / #20170264529

Multithreaded system and method for establishing network connections

A method for connecting endpoints. The method may include determining, using a first group of software threads, cross-connection information regarding various cross-connections among various network elements. ... Ciena Corporation

09/14/17 / #20170264425

High order hybrid phase locked loop with digital scheme for jitter suppression

A method for filtering noise. The method may include obtaining an output signal from a phase locked loop (pll) device. ... Ciena Corporation

08/31/17 / #20170250756

High speed signal generator

A high speed signal generator comprises a digital signal processing (dsp) block configured to process an input digital signal to generate in parallel a first digital sub-band signal having frequency components within a first spectral range and a second digital sub-band signal having frequency components within the first spectral range. A first digital-to-analog converter (dac) is configured to process the first digital sub-band signal to generate a first analog sub-band signal and a second dac is configured to process the second digital sub-band signal to generate a second analog sub-band signal. ... Ciena Corporation

08/24/17 / #20170244606

Systems and methods for bandwidth management in software defined networking controlled multi-layer networks

Bandwidth management systems and methods performed in a software defined networking (sdn) controlled network include, responsive to detecting congestion on one or more network services with identifiable data therein, obtaining policy associated with the congested network services and causing bandwidth on demand in the network to mitigate the congestion if the bandwidth on demand is possible in the network and permitted based on the policies of the congested network services; responsive to the congestion remaining subsequent to the bandwidth on demand or if the bandwidth on demand is not possible or permitted, orchestrating bandwidth for the congested network services based on their associated priority in their policy; and, responsive to the congestion remaining subsequent to the orchestrating bandwidth based on priority, orchestrating bandwidth for the congested network services based on an amount remaining to download for each of the congested network services.. . ... Ciena Corporation

08/24/17 / #20170244489

Mitigation of electrical-to-optical conversion impairments induced at transmitter

A digital instruction is generated regarding one or more electrical-to-optical conversion impairments induced at the transmitter of an optical communication system. The digital instruction may be used by the transmitter to reduce the impairments. ... Ciena Corporation

08/24/17 / #20170244211

Connector replacement methods and systems in a network element chassis

A connector replacement method in a network element chassis includes obtaining physical access to a backplane in the network element chassis, while the network element chassis is deployed; powering down backplane connectors for replacement while other backplane connectors remained powered; removing the powered down backplane connectors with a connector removal tool; inserting a new set of backplane connectors in place of the removed, powered down backplane connectors with a connector insertion tool; and powering up the new set of backplane connectors.. . ... Ciena Corporation

08/24/17 / #20170242736

Methods and systems for recursively acquiring and releasing a spinlock

A computer-implemented method for a recursive spinlock includes storing a recursion level for the recursive spinlock in memory; responsive to a request to acquire the recursive spinlock by a process, performing one of (i) acquiring the recursive spinlock if not presently held by the process and incrementing the recursion level and (ii) incrementing the recursion level if the recursive spinlock is presently held by the process; and responsive to a request to release the recursive spinlock by the process, decrementing the recursion level and releasing the recursive spinlock if the recursion level is zero. The recursive spinlock can be implemented in a software wrapper used with existing software which supports recursive locks and the recursive spinlock is used in place of the recursive locks in the existing software. ... Ciena Corporation

08/17/17 / #20170238438

Network element chassis tool and method for single person installation

A support system for a single person installation of a network element chassis in a rack with a plurality of posts includes a plurality of supporting “l” brackets each including a horizontal side adapted to support the network element chassis and a vertical side; a plurality of support mounting brackets each including two ends and each slidably connectable to the vertical side of a supporting “l” bracket based on positioning of the plurality of posts in the rack; and a plurality of rack mount brackets each connectable to one of the two ends and adapted to connect to holes in a post on the rack.. . ... Ciena Corporation

08/10/17 / #20170230294

Port congestion resiliency in a multi-card and multi-switch link aggregation group

Systems and methods for port congestion resiliency in a link aggregation group (lag) including a multi-card lag and/or a multi-switch lag. A method includes receiving a packet for egress over the lag; responsive to determining no congestion over internal ports not part of the lag, hashing with all member ports in the lag in a distribution state; and, responsive to determining congestion over the internal ports, hashing with only member ports on a local card in which the packet was received, wherein the hashing determines which member port the packet egresses from in the lag. ... Ciena Corporation

08/10/17 / #20170230267

Traffic-adaptive network control systems and methods

Traffic-adaptive network control systems and methods for a network, implemented by a server, include monitoring data associated with the network; generating a traffic forecast based on the monitored data; generating a schedule of actions based on a comparison of the traffic forecast to observed data; and causing orchestration of the actions in the network based on the generated schedule. The network can include a software defined networking (sdn) network.. ... Ciena Corporation

08/10/17 / #20170230265

Propagation of frame loss information by receiver to sender in an ethernet network

Systems and methods of propagating frame loss information by a node in an ethernet network include detecting one or more of service unaware port discards and service aware port discards; determining statistics based on the one or more of service unaware discards and service aware port discards; and transmitting the determined statistics to a sender node through one of a link layer discovery protocol data unit (lldpdu) and a link trace message (ltm). The lldpdu and the ltm can include an organization specific type-length-value (tlv) with a tlv information string therein based on the determined statistics and cause of the one or more of service unaware discards and service aware port discards.. ... Ciena Corporation

08/10/17 / #20170230110

Automated node level fibre audit

A method of automated testing and evaluation of a node of a communications network, the method comprising: a management computer interacting with the node to discover fibre trails within the node that can be safely tested; and the management computer interacting with the node to test at least continuity of each identified fibre trail that can be safely tested.. . ... Ciena Corporation

08/03/17 / #20170223436

Flexible behavior modification during restoration in optical networks

Systems and methods of flexible behavior modification of a service implemented in a node during restoration in an optical network include provisioning the service on a home route with a first set of attributes; defining one or more protect routes in the network for the service, wherein each of the one or more protect routes have a corresponding set of attributes which differs from the first set of attributes; and, responsive to restoration of the service, determining a protect route of the one or more protect routes to restore the service and changing the service to have the corresponding set of attributes while on the protect route.. . ... Ciena Corporation

08/03/17 / #20170220721

Systems and methods for dynamic symbols for devices in electrical schematics

Computer-implemented systems and methods for dynamic symbols for devices in an electrical schematic include receiving placement of a dynamic symbol in a schematic, wherein the dynamic symbol represents an electrical device in the schematic and is selected from a symbol library; receiving assignment of nets to pins of the dynamic symbol; performing manipulation of the pins based on a logical grouping, wherein the dynamic symbol supports dynamic reconfiguration of the pins via the manipulation while retaining pin information from a base symbol in the symbol library; and visually presenting the dynamic symbol with the manipulated pins.. . ... Ciena Corporation

07/27/17 / #20170214608

Flow based virtual network function orchestration

A method for computing device management includes receiving a first incoming packet by a first computing device, analyzing the first incoming packet to identify a virtual network function (vnf) needed to process the first incoming packet, transmitting, to a software defined network controller and in response to the first incoming packet, an orchestration request requesting to orchestrate the vnf on the first computing device, and orchestrating the vnf on the first computing device. The method further includes processing a second incoming packet using the vnf on the first computing device.. ... Ciena Corporation

07/27/17 / #20170214516

System and method for managing holdover

A system for managing holdover. The system may include a local oscillator device. ... Ciena Corporation

07/27/17 / #20170214473

Signal equalizer in a coherent optical receiver

A signal equalizer for compensating impairments of an optical signal received through a link of a high speed optical communications network. At least one set of compensation vectors are computed for compensating at least two distinct types of impairments. ... Ciena Corporation

07/27/17 / #20170214467

Multi-layer modem reclamation systems and methods

Modem reclamation systems and methods for optimizing optical modem use in a network include determining costs and capacity range for lx adjacencies in the network based on lx information and l0 information, wherein lx is a digital layer with routed traffic and l0 is a media layer with optical modems that are reclaimed when their utilization is reduced in the digital layer; determining an order of lx connection moves that minimizes the costs of the lx adjacencies, to reclaim or minimize the optical modem use; and performing the lx connection moves based on the order and updating the lx adjacencies.. . ... Ciena Corporation

07/20/17 / #20170208009

Optimum utilization of green tokens in packet metering

Packet metering systems and methods optimize utilization of green or committed tokens. The packet metering method includes receiving a packet of size b in an interval; and marking a color of the packet as green for committed, yellow for excess, or red for discard, based on the size b, a current committed token bucket for the interval, a current excess token bucket, and an overflow counter used to preserve unused green tokens from previous intervals while preserving committed information rate (cir) and committed burst size (cbs) for the interval.. ... Ciena Corporation

07/20/17 / #20170207849

Coherent receiver based virtual optical spectrum analyzer

A coherent receiver adapted to operate as an optical spectrum analyzer (osa) includes an optical front end adapted to receive an optical signal and to mix the optical signal with a local laser; a photodetector block coupled to the optical front end and adapted to receive an output of the optical front end and provide an output corresponding to spectral components of the optical signal; and a controller coupled to the optical front end and the photodetector block, wherein the controller is adapted to operate in an osa mode to sweep the local laser across a portion of optical spectrum to perform an osa measurement while not performing data demodulation.. . ... Ciena Corporation

07/13/17 / #20170201452

Multi-drop unidirectional services in a network

Systems and methods for a multi-drop, unidirectional service in a network include, responsive to a source point, one or more drop points, and a routing consideration, computing a path in the network; causing establishment of the multi-drop, unidirectional service on the computed path, through one of a control plane and a software defined networking (sdn) controller; and managing the multi-drop, unidirectional service through the one of the control plane and the sdn controller. The multi-drop, unidirectional service has the source point at an originating node, one or more drop points at associated intermediate nodes, zero or more intermediate nodes with no drop points, and one or more drop points at associated terminating nodes.. ... Ciena Corporation

07/13/17 / #20170201323

Multilayer resource management and arbitration in transport networks

A method, implemented in a hybrid network element supporting switching at a plurality of layers, for multilayer resource management between the plurality of layers, includes operating a control plane at layer n between a plurality of network elements in a network, wherein control plane signaling at the layer n is processed at each network element in a path for a service in the network; and operating a resource management protocol at layer n+1 with another network element in the network by injecting and extracting messages from and to the control plane into a data path in the layer n+1, wherein a service at the layer n+1 operates over the layer n, and wherein the resource management protocol messages are processed at an originating network element and a terminating network element and not at intermediate network elements in the path.. . ... Ciena Corporation

07/13/17 / #20170201318

Ethernet link state signaling for packet flows mapped into optical transport network with generic framing procedure

Systems and methods of ethernet link state signaling through a packet fabric with an ethernet service transported over optical transport network (otn) utilizing generic framing procedure framed (gfp-f) mapping include demapping packets received from an otn container over gfp-f; detecting a condition associated with the ethernet service; and causing insertion of maintenance signals in otn overhead based on the condition instead of using gfp-f client management frames (cmf). The gfp-f mapping can be compliant to itu-t recommendation g.sup43 (02/11) clause 6.2.. ... Ciena Corporation

06/22/17 / #20170180153

Systems and methods to detect and recover from a loop in an ethernet ring protected network

Loop detection systems and methods in an ethernet ring protected network include, subsequent to creating a loop detection service on all nodes in the network, periodically transmitting a loop detection frame on both ports of the node; responsive to failing to receive the loop detection frame at the node, determining no loop exist in the ring; and, responsive to receiving the loop detection frame on a received port at the node, determining a loop exists in the ring and automatically implementing one or more recovery actions.. . ... Ciena Corporation

06/22/17 / #20170180050

Network resource optimization based on time-varying traffic in optical networks

Systems and methods of network resource optimization based on time-varying traffic in an optical network with a filterless architecture include determining traffic variations based on the time-varying traffic in the optical network; and adjusting one or more of transceivers and wavelengths between nodes in the optical network based on the traffic variations and using the filterless architecture. The adjusting minimizes the number of the transceivers and the wavelengths based on the traffic variations and the time-varying traffic. ... Ciena Corporation

06/15/17 / #20170171163

Flexible ethernet encryption systems and methods

Systems and methods for physical coding sublayer (pcs) encryption implemented by a first network element communicatively coupled to a second network element include utilizing an encryption messaging channel to establish an authenticated session and exchanging one or more encryption keys with a second network element; encrypting a signal, based on the one or more encryption keys; and transmitting the encrypted signal to the second network element.. . ... Ciena Corporation

06/15/17 / #20170171089

Per queue per service buffering capability within a shaping window

Systems and methods for per queue per service buffering capability for traffic shaping include receiving an ingress packet; responsive to no traffic shaping, providing the ingress packet to an output interface; and, responsive to traffic shaping, performing one of sending the ingress packet to the output interface, buffering the ingress packet in a queue based on service priority, and dropping the ingress packet. The traffic shaping can include one of a token bucket algorithm and a leaky bucket algorithm.. ... Ciena Corporation

06/15/17 / #20170171053

Smart ethernet edge networking system

A system is provided for controlling the flow of data-packet traffic through an ethernet telecommunications network having a multiplicity of nodes interconnected by multiple network links. Incoming data-packet traffic from multiple customer connections are received at a first node for entry into the network via the first node. ... Ciena Corporation

06/08/17 / #20170164500

Offloaded backplane for power distribution in high-speed data applications

A backplane system for a high-speed network element includes a main backplane including a plurality of traces for data and control connectivity, high-speed data connectors, and a power connector, wherein the high-speed data connectors and the power connector are configured to engage one or more modules; and a power backplane for power connectivity separate from the main backplane connected to the power connector, wherein the power backplane is coupled to a power source to provide supply and return current to the one or more modules through the power connector.. . ... Ciena Corporation

06/08/17 / #20170164499

Backplane alignment and stiffening apparatus for two backplanes spanning single modules

A split backplane for a telecommunication, networking, or computing device includes a power backplane comprising power connectors; a signal backplane comprising signal connectors, wherein the signal backplane is separate from the power backplane, and wherein one or more modules are adapted to selectively connect to the power connectors and the signal connectors simultaneously; and an alignment bar connected between the power backplane and the signal backplane for alignment and stiffening of the power backplane and the signal backplane together for signal integrity and to prevent connector pins from bending or failing between the one or more modules, the power connectors, and the signal connectors.. . ... Ciena Corporation

06/08/17 / #20170163489

Control plane discovery of services

A method for control plane discovery includes a plurality of network elements transmitting an outbound control plane communication to generate path information of a path through the network elements. The transmitting includes receiving, by an intermediate network element of the network elements, the outbound control plane communication on an optical layer ingress port, appending, by the intermediate network element, an intermediate network element identifier of the intermediate network element to the path information in the outbound control plane communication, and transmitting, by the intermediate network element, the outbound control plane communication via an electrical layer egress port based on the intermediate network element comprising a layer changing drop port. ... Ciena Corporation

06/08/17 / #20170163337

Optical channel telemetry

A method for performing optical channel telemetry. The method may include generating various channel estimates of an optical channel, wherein the channel estimates are generated by an optical detector. ... Ciena Corporation

06/08/17 / #20170160482

Method and system for providing optical connections

A system for providing optical connections that may include an optical grating structure and an optical waveguide coupled to the optical grating structure. The optical grating structure may be configured to receive an optical wave, through an interposer, from an optical source. ... Ciena Corporation

06/01/17 / #20170154044

Software precedence in ternary content-addressable memory (tcam)

A method for processing ternary content-addressable memory (tcam) data. The method may include transmitting a search query to a tcam device. ... Ciena Corporation

05/18/17 / #20170142505

Minimal spectrum occupancy systems and methods for routing and wavelength or spectrum assignment in optical networks

Systems and methods for determining minimal spectrum occupancy in routing and wavelength/spectrum assignment (rwa/rsa) in an optical network include performing, for a new demand request, a set of binary operations using a binary representation for each wavelength or portion of spectrum over all links in the optical network; and selecting, based on the set of binary operations, i) a route and ii) one of a) a wavelength and b) one or more portions of spectrum for the new demand request.. . ... Ciena Corporation

05/11/17 / #20170134282

Per queue per service differentiation for dropping packets in weighted random early detection

Systems and methods for per service differentiation for congestion avoidance through dropping packets based on service priority include receiving an ingress packet; responsive to no congestion, providing the ingress packet to a queue of one or more queues; and, responsive to congestion, during a congestion window, one of providing the ingress packet to the queue and dropping the packet based on a packet dropping capability and service priority of a service associated with the packet.. . ... Ciena Corporation

05/11/17 / #20170134114

Flexible grid optical spectrum transmitter, receiver, and transceiver

A flexible grid optical transmitter communicatively coupled to an optical network includes a coherent optical transmitter configured to generate a signal at a respective center frequency on an optical spectrum and spanning n bins about the respective center frequency, wherein n is an integer greater than 1, wherein the respective center frequency and the n bins are utilized to perform operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning (oam&p) functions. The respective center frequency and the n bins are specified to the coherent optical transmitter by a management system for the oam&p functions. ... Ciena Corporation

05/11/17 / #20170131142

Method and system for balancing optical receiver

A method. The method may include transmitting an optical noise signal to a first photodetector and a second photodetector within an optical receiver circuit that includes a transimpedance amplifier circuit. ... Ciena Corporation

05/04/17 / #20170127157

High port count switching module, apparatus, and method

A high port count switching module includes a plurality of switching circuits disposed on a glass interposer, wherein the plurality of switching circuits each include cross-point switches configured to perform switching at a full signal rate; and a plurality of optical transceivers disposed on the glass interposer and communicatively coupled to the plurality of switching circuits. The glass interposer has i) a low dielectric loss, relative to a silicon, organic, or ceramic interposer, to allow wideband data transmission, ii) a smooth surface, resulting in smooth metal traces to minimize high-frequency skin effect loss, iii) a coefficient of thermal expansion that is matched to the plurality of switching circuits to minimize stresses, and iv) thermal isolation among the plurality of switching circuits due to low thermal conductivity of glass.. ... Ciena Corporation

05/04/17 / #20170126589

Frontplane communication network between multiple pluggable modules on a single faceplate

A system that includes (i) a device having connectors connected to pluggable modules external to the device and (ii) the pluggable modules exchanging signals with the device via the connectors. In particular, the pluggable modules includes a first pluggable module and a second pluggable module that further exchange a supplemental signal with each other and bypassing the connectors.. ... Ciena Corporation

05/04/17 / #20170126314

Systems and methods for statistical multiplexing with otn and dwdm

A method of statistical multiplexing with one of layer 0 flexible grid optical spectrum and layer 1 time division multiplexed (tdm) bandwidth in a multi-layer network includes obtaining a sampling of bandwidth usage over time on ports and links in the multi-layer network for one of layer 0 and layer 1 traffic using a plurality of statistical parameters, wherein the plurality of statistical parameters are defined for the one of layer 0 and layer 1 traffic; monitoring the plurality of statistical parameters; and triggering based on the monitoring one of i) adjustments to the one of layer 0 and layer 1 traffic and ii) adjustments to routing parameters on the links for new traffic, wherein the triggering is one of through a control plane and a software defined networking (sdn) controller.. . ... Ciena Corporation

05/04/17 / #20170126312

In-service optical fault isolation systems and methods

Systems and methods for in-service optical fault isolation on a link between a first node and a second node include transmitting counters between each of the first node and the second node; determining associated values for the counters responsive to an event associated with the link; and determining a location of the event based on the associated values for the counters. The determining includes converting time differences between the counters into distance, based on propagation speed of a signal over optical fiber forming the link. ... Ciena Corporation

05/04/17 / #20170122812

Signal detection systems and methods on a fiber carrying multiple wavelengths

Systems and methods to detect a wavelength of interest (λrx) amongst one or more wavelengths (λ1, λ2, . . ... Ciena Corporation

04/27/17 / #20170118547

Method of processing traffic in a node in a transport network with a network controller

A network element of a transport network has three fabrics housed within a single shelf of a telco rack, namely a packet fabric, an electrical fabric and an optical fabric. A stream of traffic including a plurality of lambdas is received at a trunk interface of such a shelf. ... Ciena Corporation

04/27/17 / #20170117983

Control systems and methods for spectrally overlapped flexible grid spectrum using a control bandwidth

Systems and methods to control optical signals in a spectrally overlapped, flexible grid spectrum system include receiving measured power within a control bandwidth for an optical signal, wherein the control bandwidth is less than a spectral occupancy of the optical signal and equal to or greater than a resolution bandwidth of a measurement device configured to measure the measured power; and controlling the optical signal based on the measured power and a target power within the control bandwidth. The optical signals can include nyquist spaced or super nyquist spaced signals in a media-channel.. ... Ciena Corporation

04/20/17 / #20170111251

Measuring frame loss

A method for measuring frame loss on a connection between a near-device (ned) and a far-end device (fed). The method includes: placing, on the connection, multiple test frames having a plurality of sequence numbers; obtaining, from the connection, a first reflected test frame having a first sequence number, a first fed receiving counter value from the fed, and an initial fed received count from the fed; obtaining, from the connection, a second reflected test frame having a second sequence number, a second fed receiving counter value from the fed, and the initial fed received count from the fed; and calculating a one-way frame loss value on the connection based on the second sequence number and the initial fed received count.. ... Ciena Corporation

04/13/17 / #20170105060

Scalable switch fabric using optical interconnects

A scalable switch fabric using optical interconnects includes one or more line modules each including fabric interface optics supporting a plurality of optical output signals; an optical interconnect optically connected to each of the one or more line modules via the fabric interface optics; and one or more center stage switches, wherein the optical interconnect is adapted to shuffle the plurality of optical output signals from each of the one or more line modules to the one or more center stage switches. The optical interconnect can include two levels of shuffle to distribute each of the plurality of optical signals from each of the fabric interface optics to the one or more center stage switches.. ... Ciena Corporation

04/13/17 / #20170104635

Physical adjacency detection systems and methods

Adjacency detection systems and methods configured to detect physical interconnection between two devices in a network include communicating data with one or more controllers and data sources associated with the network; for a given port in the network to detect a corresponding port physically connected thereto, causing orchestration of changes in performance monitoring data for the given port over a period of time; and analyzing the data subsequent to the orchestration to detect the corresponding port. The systems and methods can operate over multiple network layers, with different vendor equipment, independent of network protocols, and in-service.. ... Ciena Corporation

04/13/17 / #20170104525

Multi-layer network resiliency systems and methods

Systems and methods providing resiliency between a server layer and a client layer include determining a minimal spanning tree in the client layer; determining a steiner tree in the server layer based on vertices associated with the minimal spanning tree in the client layer; and determining one or more resiliency paths in the client layer based on the minimal spanning tree and the steiner tree, wherein the one or more resiliency paths are added to the minimal spanning tree in the client layer based on potential failures in the steiner tree. For example, the server layer is an optical layer and the client layer is a time division multiplexing (tdm) layer.. ... Ciena Corporation

04/06/17 / #20170099530

Control plane assisted optical switch

Systems and methods for controlling an optical switch via one of a control plane and software defined networking (sdn) include associating one or more managed endpoints with one or more line ports of an optical switch; receiving state information for the one or more managed endpoints over a session associated with one of the control plane and the sdn; and controlling switching of the one or more line ports based on the state information for the one or more managed endpoints. The optical switch is an all-optical device which does not have access to digital signal quality information of associated signals.. ... Ciena Corporation

04/06/17 / #20170099354

Service preemption selection systems and methods in networks

Systems and methods for service preemption selection implemented by a node in a network include receiving, from an ingress link, a request to establish a service on a path in the network while preempting one or more existing services if required to establish the service, wherein the request comprises a list of any previously selected services for preemption and an indication of whether preemption is required on the ingress link; selecting, if required based on the indication, one or more services for preemption on the ingress link based on service selection criteria; and forwarding the request on an egress link to an adjacent node with any updates based on the selecting.. . ... Ciena Corporation

03/30/17 / #20170093757

Time transfer systems and methods over flexible ethernet

Time transfer systems and methods in flexible ethernet (flexe) between a first node and a second node include detecting a timestamp point of reference in flexe overhead and sampling a time based thereon; communicating samples of the timestamp point of reference between the first node and the second node; and determining a time delay between the first node and the second node based on the samples.. . ... Ciena Corporation

03/30/17 / #20170093528

Staggered parity

Forward error correction technique: parity vectors are computed such that each parity vector spans multiple fec frames; in a given fec frame, a first set of syndrome bits are due to the parity vectors, and a second set of syndrome bits satisfy fec equations that involve bits of the given fec frame including the first set of syndrome bits; and the parity vectors are staggered with respect to any sequence in which the fec frames are processed. Values of decoded bits of a first frame are deduced from known bits of a first parity vector having an effective length of one frame. ... Ciena Corporation

03/30/17 / #20170090268

Chirp suppressed ring resonator

An optical modulator may include a first interferometer arm and a second interferometer arm, a first microring resonator disposed along the first interferometer arm, the first microring resonator having a first resonant wavelength, and the first resonant wavelength having a first difference from a carrier wavelength. The optical modulator may include a second microring resonator disposed along the second interferometer arm, the second microring resonator having a second resonant wavelength, and the second resonant wavelength having a second difference from the carrier wavelength. ... Ciena Corporation

03/30/17 / #20170090267

Chirp suppressed ring resonator

An optical modulator may include a first interferometer arm and a second interferometer arm, a first microring resonator disposed along the first interferometer arm, the first microring resonator having a first resonant wavelength, and the first resonant wavelength having a first difference from a carrier wavelength. The optical modulator may include a second microring resonator disposed along the second interferometer arm, the second microring resonator having a second resonant wavelength, and the second resonant wavelength having a second difference from the carrier wavelength. ... Ciena Corporation

03/23/17 / #20170086332

Modular fan and motherboard assembly

A chassis defines a slot for receiving a motherboard. The motherboard is insertable within the slot and further defines a plurality of fan module receivers along an edge thereof. ... Ciena Corporation

03/23/17 / #20170086208

Sdn orchestration and optimization of antennas and frequencies in radio access networks

Systems and methods for software defined networking (sdn) orchestration of antennas and frequencies in a heterogeneous radio access network (ran) include maintaining status of a plurality of devices connected to the heterogeneous ran; determining whether to upgrade connections of a first subset of the plurality of devices; determining whether to downgrade connections of a second subset of the plurality of devices; and providing instructions to the heterogeneous ran for the first subset and the second subset. The systems and methods enable enforcement of business-aware prioritization on the heterogeneous ran.. ... Ciena Corporation

03/23/17 / #20170085335

Flexible grid optical spectrum transmitter, receiver, and transceiver

A flexible grid optical transceiver communicatively coupled to an optical network includes a coherent optical transmitter configured to generate a transmit signal at a first frequency/wavelength center and spanning a first one or more bins of optical spectrum; and a coherent optical receiver configured to receive a receive signal at a second frequency/wavelength center and spanning a second one or more bins of optical spectrum, wherein a size of each of the first one or more of bins and the second one or more of bins is based on a required roll off of a wavelength selective component in the optical network.. . ... Ciena Corporation

03/23/17 / #20170085316

Systems and methods improving optical restoration time in networks

Systems and methods for improving optical restoration time in a network include maintaining a status of wavelength load for a plurality of optical links in the network; utilizing the wavelength load to estimate a restoration time for one or more wavelengths being added to each of the plurality of optical links; and determining one or more restoration paths for the one or more wavelengths in the network and considering a total service restoration time in selecting a path for each of the one or more wavelengths, wherein each of the one or more restoration paths comprises one or more of the plurality of optical links.. . ... Ciena Corporation

03/23/17 / #20170083057

Variable width pcie interface

A chassis includes a midplane defining a plurality of expansion sockets on one side and one or more motherboard sockets on the other. A modular motherboard is removably inserted in the chassis and engages the one or more motherboard sockets. ... Ciena Corporation

03/16/17 / #20170078216

Method and apparatus for provisioning virtual network functions from a network service provider

A method and apparatus facilitates an enterprise to lease virtual appliances from network services provider. The method operates by deploying a converged networking and computing device at a service location, downloading a virtual network function to the converged networking and computing device, activating the virtual network function by a service in the wide area network, and connecting the virtual network function to a provisioned network path over the wide area network. ... Ciena Corporation

03/16/17 / #20170078016

Optical dispersion compensation in the electrical domain in an optical communications system

A compensation function mitigates a substantial portion of the chromatic dispersion imparted to a communications signal by an optical communications system. A digital input signal is digitally processed using the compensation function to generate a predistorted signal. ... Ciena Corporation

03/16/17 / #20170075081

Method and system having a transimpedance amplifier circuit with a differential current monitoring device for monitoring optical receiver circuit (as amended)

A method for monitoring a circuit. The method may include obtaining, using a total current monitoring device, a measurement of a current transmitted through a cathode in a photodetector circuit. ... Ciena Corporation








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